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Essay代写范文|英国社会保障制度

来源:网络整理    作者:留学生活网    发布时间:2019-08-05 16:16    阅读: 次    文章分类:范文参考

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文章导读:本文是一篇Essay代写范文 ,本文主要讨论了英国的社会保障制度。战后和平提高了国民物质文明水平,英国政府开始主动积极的制定社会保障计划,让每个国民在任何情况下都可以体面...

  本文是一篇Essay代写范文 ,本文主要讨论了英国的社会保障制度。战后和平提高了国民物质文明水平,英国政府开始主动积极的制定社会保障计划,让每个国民在任何情况下都可以体面的生活。社会保障计划逐步改善了国民的住宅、生活和城市环境,帮助失业者和贫困者摆脱不幸等等。社会保障制度作为一种长期战略,促进英国经济制度的广泛发展和不断完善,保障英国全体公民的基本生活需要,是英国重建计划的一个重要组成部分,这对英国建立福利国家有着重大的影响。

Essay代写范文|英国社会保障制度

  Capitalism has laid a material foundation for the charity of Christianity, and the charity thought in Christianity has also laid a spiritual and theoretical foundation for the development of the social security system of capitalism. Religious culture has a wide influence in Europe and it always advocates charity. Christianity declared that "all men are the children of god, and all men are brothers in the four seas. In early Europe, the propaganda of "benevolence" and "charity and relief" in religious ethics had a profound impact on later generations and played an important role in the establishment of social security system in Britain. At the same time, the principle of public and egalitarian distribution of property implemented by the early Christian societies provided the basis for the establishment of welfare distribution methods in Britain. Religion has a huge organization system, in this sense, it will be poor into the unified organization form, but the church itself consumes most of the absorption to wealth, for the number of poor is limited, but "sometimes seems to be a pain pills" of social discontent, it can reduce the effectiveness of the role and there is no cure. Church - based charity for the poor has been gradually adopted by the government into a comprehensive social security system. After expanding and adjusting the content and form of the social security system, the government has also extensively involved itself in important social issues such as poverty, disease and unemployment. This has played an important role in the universality principle embodied in the British social security system.
       资本主义为基督教的慈善事业奠定了物质基础,基督教的慈善思想也为资本主义社会保障制度的发展奠定了精神和理论基础。宗教文化在欧洲有着广泛的影响,它总是提倡慈善。基督教宣称“所有的人都是上帝的孩子,所有的人都是四海的兄弟。在欧洲早期,宗教伦理中的“仁爱”、“慈善救济”的宣传对后世产生了深远的影响,在英国社会保障制度的建立中发挥了重要作用。同时,早期基督教社会实行的公共和平等分配财产的原则为英国建立福利分配方法提供了依据。宗教有着庞大的组织体系,从这个意义上讲,它将贫穷转化为统一的组织形式,但教会本身消耗的大部分是对财富的吸收,因为穷人的数量是有限的,但“有时似乎是一种止痛药”的社会不满,它能降低效率。没有治愈的作用。教会为本的穷人慈善事业,已逐渐被政府采纳为一个综合性的社会保障制度。在扩大和调整社会保障制度的内容和形式后,政府也广泛参与了贫困、疾病、失业等重要社会问题。这在英国社会保障制度中体现的普遍性原则中发挥了重要作用。

  Freedom is limited, but freedom should be aimed at the freedom of the majority of people, rather than the unlimited freedom of individuals as the old liberalism believed. The neoliberal doctrine has changed the traditional liberalism's opposition to state intervention, believing that freedom is not absolute and that "the state must intervene for the sake of freedom itself". It can be seen that neoliberals emphasize a new relationship between society and individuals, which is an interchangeable responsibility and obligation between society and individuals. It says countries on social economy and life positive intervention measures should be taken to prevent the liberalism and the economic system of the gap between rich and poor is bigger, but this kind of intervention is not an absolute and unlimited, is closely linked to the welfare of the individual and social welfare, the state intervention is not the ultimate goal, should put the individual freedom, individualism and collectivism coordination. "The state can take away part of an individual's property through taxation, because the state is necessary to maintain personal security, and the individual must pay a certain price for this." Neoliberals also argue that social problems are more the result of socioeconomic change.
       自由是有限的,但自由的目标应该是大多数人的自由,而不是像旧自由主义所相信的个人的无限自由。新自由主义理论改变了传统自由主义反对国家干预的立场,认为自由不是绝对的,“国家必须为了自由而干预”。可以看出,新自由主义者强调社会与个人之间的新关系,这是社会与个人之间可互换的责任和义务。它说,各国在社会经济和生活上应该采取积极的干预措施,防止自由主义和经济制度的贫富差距更大,但这种干预不是绝对的和无限的,与个人的福利息息相关。而社会福利、国家干预并不是最终目标,应把个人自由、个人主义和集体主义协调起来。”新自由主义者还认为社会问题更多的是社会经济变化的结果,因为国家需要维护个人安全,个人必须为此付出一定的代价。

  Fabian theory holds that society is an organic whole, which is not only the synthesis of individuals or individuals, but also the combination of many individuals, and there is an appropriate coordination between individuals and society. We should attach importance to the whole, take the continuation of the society as the goal, and maximize the benefits through certain mutual assistance and cooperation. Economically, everyone has the right to pursue his own interests. In politics, the state has the right and obligation to ensure the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people. However, when the two conflicts occur, Fabian advocates that the government should intervene in social life to achieve social improvement and solve social problems. Only when everyone in the social system lives an equal, free and democratic life can he give full play to his potential and improve social benefits. Fabian socialist thought of social security emphasizes the bilateral responsibilities and obligations of the state and citizens, that is, both of them have the right to pursue the maximization of interests. It should be noted that although the capitalist private system in Britain was not very reasonable at that time, Fabian socialism did not emphasize the necessity to overthrow capitalism, but the establishment of a system similar to the socialist nature of national happiness to enhance people's happiness. Therefore, fabianism, as a theoretical basis, played a certain role in establishing a universal social security system and welfare system in Britain.
       法比安理论认为,社会是一个有机的整体,不仅是个体或个体的综合,也是许多个体的结合,个体与社会之间存在着适当的协调。我们要重视整体,以社会的延续为目标,通过一定的互助合作,最大限度地提高效益。在经济上,每个人都有权追求自己的利益。在政治上,国家有权利和义务确保大多数人获得最大的幸福。然而,当这两种冲突发生时,费边主张政府干预社会生活,以实现社会进步,解决社会问题。只有社会制度中的每个人都过着平等、自由、民主的生活,才能充分发挥自己的潜能,提高社会效益。费边社会主义社会保障思想强调国家和公民的双边责任和义务,即都有追求利益最大化的权利。应当指出的是,虽然当时英国的资本主义私有制并不十分合理,但法比安社会主义并没有强调推翻资本主义的必要性,而是建立了一个类似于社会主义性质的国民幸福感提高的制度。海角。因此,法比安主义作为一种理论基础,在英国建立普遍的社会保障制度和福利制度方面发挥了一定的作用。

  Capitalist system is not perfect, do not have self-adjusting mechanism. The "free competition" market economy will inevitably bring bankruptcy and unemployment. Keynes believed that government intervention in economic life could only control and adjust its function and efficiency. He elaborated the idea of state intervention in the economy and the theory of insufficient effective demand, hoping that the state would regulate the distribution of citizens, increase national consumption, promote economic growth and achieve full employment. At the same time, Keynes not only proposed that the government should intervene in the economy, but also explained how and to what extent. For example, the establishment of progressive tax system and the implementation of social security system such as minimum wage is a form and means for the state to intervene in the redistribution and expenditure of national income. This theory obviously influenced the process of establishing social security system in Britain.

  Britain was the cradle of the industrial revolution. The industrial revolution in Britain greatly promoted the development of industry and strengthened the ranks of the working class, which brought great material wealth to Britain. But with the development of industrialization, all kinds of social contradictions and problems come one after another. With the acceleration of urbanization and the increasing scale of cities, farmers are turning into workers and living by selling their labor force. It is easy for them to fall into poverty and helplessness. In the face of poverty and unemployment rising and various social problems, the ruling class in order to eliminate the consequences of industrialization to maintain its own long-term interests, in order to consolidate his rule, began in earnest the adjustment of the social welfare policy, accordingly puts forward some legislative policy, and established to poverty alleviation in this period as the main mission of the state institutions, and put forward a new way of guarantee, in the protection of laborer survival risk at the same time, improve the level of people's whole life, deal with the various problems in life, and promote the further development of the economy.

  Although the industrial revolution brought great material wealth to Britain, it also made the distribution of social wealth in Britain more and more unequal. On the one hand, the development of capitalist economy is very rapid, capitalists rely on the original accumulation to make their capital like a snowball rolling; On the other hand, the broad masses of laborers who lack means of production live in poverty for a long time. British society is in a period of polarization. Since the 19th century, serious poverty and unemployment have made social conflicts more acute than ever, and affected the security, stability and development of Britain. At this time, Britain was carrying out the expansion of foreign capitalism and constantly expanding its territory and colonies overseas. However, most British military candidates failed the physical examination, which was caused by long-term malnutrition. Without a strong military, foreign capital expansion is not only impossible, but also a threat to the security of the country. It can be seen that the poverty problem not only affects the political economy of Britain, but also seriously affects the military efficiency and management efficiency of British capitalism. The ruling class has increasingly realized that, through the reform of distribution mode, it is one of the basic measures to guarantee the stability of the country to give some support to these poor people and unemployed people so that they do not struggle in the poverty line. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt various means to establish a social security system, eliminate poverty and the gap between the rich and poor caused by poverty, and ease social contradictions.

  Soon after the World War I, pent-up consumer demand during the war began to expand, and Britain's economy boomed. But the good times did not last long. The economic crisis that began in 1929 in the United States almost swept over the entire capitalist world, with astonishing destructive force. The heavy burden of the crisis was gradually transferred to the vast number of workers, Britain was also severely affected by the economic crisis. There has been a serious decline in production, a large number of factories closed down, many enterprises and operators of the accumulation of instantaneous bubble, a large number of surplus goods, the destruction of social material wealth, a large number of productive forces have been idle, destroyed; Millions of workers have lost everything for a while. Unemployment has soared. Many schools are no longer enrolling students, and even public schools have been forced to close, leaving hundreds of thousands of students out of school. The credit crisis led to the collapse of Banks, all Banks were paralyzed, further expanded to the currency crisis, world trade also fell into contraction and stagnation; Agricultural prices plunged. In order to restore the economy, countries began to compete for the market again, their currencies depreciated, and the world market became smaller as a result. A new economic crisis broke out in 1937. Faced with this unprecedented crisis, the British government began to pay real attention to the construction of the social security system, expand the scope of social security, in order to cope with various problems caused by the economic crisis, comprehensive protection of people's basic living needs.

  The British government began to pay attention to the basic living conditions of the people in the World War I. During the war, the British government raised the social welfare level, especially in terms of children's welfare and medical care. After the World War II, a large number of servicemen and women needed to be re-employed, their illness and disability problems, the issue of allowances for the survivors of the war and so on needed to be solved. After the war, peace improved the material civilization of the British people, and the British government began to actively formulate social security programs to enable every citizen to live a decent life under any circumstances. So the social security program gradually expanded from the privilege of military personnel only to military families and then to all citizens, developed and improved the housing, living and urban environment of citizens, helped the unemployed and the poor get rid of misfortune and so on. The state has defined the social security system through legislation. At this time of the social security system has been thoroughly changed the wartime temporary emergency measures to alleviate the economic and social contradictions of the state, but as a long-term strategy, to promote the extensive development of the economic system and constantly improve and guarantee the basic life needs of all citizens, is an important part of the reconstruction program. This had a major impact on the establishment of a welfare state in Britain.


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