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Essay代写范文|美国的破产法

来源:网络整理    作者:留学生活网    发布时间:2019-07-08 16:34    阅读: 次    文章分类:范文参考

文章关键词:Essay代写范文


文章导读:本文是一篇优秀的Essay代写范文,供留学生参考学习,这篇Essay主要讨论了美国的破产法。2005年,美国正式通过新破产法,将《示范法》并入其中,成为了迄今为止最完整地适用《示范法...
  本文是一篇优秀的Essay代写范文,供留学生参考学习,这篇Essay主要讨论了美国的破产法。2005年,美国正式通过新破产法,将《示范法》并入其中,成为了迄今为止最完整地适用《示范法》的国家。改革后的新破产法采用了以主要破产程序为主,辅之非主要破产程序与属地破产程序的模式。美国此次在跨境破产领域的改革,体现了其寻求国际合作的态度。

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  Essay代写范文|美国的破产法
Essay代写范文|美国的破产法
 
  In 1898,the American bankruptcy law adopted regionalism,which was reflected in the later jurisprudence.After the 20th century,with the prosperity of foreign trade,the domestic capital of the United States continued to pour into foreign countries and multinational companies developed rapidly.The judicial practice of cross-border bankruptcy in the United States fluctuated between regionalism and universalism for a long time.Against this background,American lawmakers gradually realize the limitations of regionalism.Under the proposal of professor Stefan Riesenfeld,section 304 of the United States bankruptcy code of 1978 took the first step to codify the principle of comity and international cooperation in judicial practice,providing legal support for the recognition and enforcement of foreign bankruptcy proceedings in the United States.
      1898年,美国破产法采用了地区主义,这在后来的法学中得到了体现,20世纪以后,随着对外贸易的繁荣,美国国内资本不断涌入国外,跨国公司迅速发展。美国跨国破产的实践长期以来在地区主义和普遍主义之间徘徊,在此背景下,美国立法者逐渐认识到地区主义的局限性。1978年的《破产法》采取了第一步,将礼让原则和国际合作原则编入司法实践,为美国承认和执行外国破产程序提供法律支持。
 
  Article 304,for the first time,comprehensively defines the"auxiliary procedure"for overseas bankruptcy proceedings to be recognized and implemented by American courts in the mode of domestic legislation,which has exerted a great influence internationally and is praised as the"American mode"in the history of cross-border bankruptcy.
       第三百零四条第一次全面界定了美国法院以国内立法模式承认和执行的境外破产程序的“辅助程序”,在国际上具有重大影响,在《中华人民共和国破产法》中被誉为“美国模式”。跨国破产史。
 
  Under section 304,as long as the debtor has bankruptcy property locally,the foreign representative has the right to initiate auxiliary proceedings in a local court to request assistance in administering the debtor's property in the United States.The U.S.bankruptcy code of 1978 provides only in principle for courts of jurisdiction and does not specify how a foreign representative can file an application for recognition in a U.S.court.
       根据第304条,只要债务人在当地拥有破产财产,外国破产管理人有权在当地法院提起辅助程序,请求协助管理债务人在美国的财产。1978年《美国破产法》仅在《破产法》中规定:CIPLE适用于有管辖权的法院,未规定外国代表如何向美国法院提出承认申请。
 
  Section 304 of the U.S.bankruptcy code of 1978 requires U.S.courts to consider several factors when providing assistance to foreign bankruptcy proceedings.To protect American creditors from discrimination or inconvenience in asserting their claims in foreign bankruptcy proceedings;Preventing preferential or fraudulent disposition of bankruptcy property;The distribution of bankruptcy assets in foreign bankruptcy proceedings is essentially in line with American bankruptcy law;Comity.Foreign insolvency proceedings provide an opportunity for individuals to restart under reasonable circumstances.The regulation is a"safety valve"set by us lawmakers to protect the interests of the country's creditors and its public policy.
       1978年《美国破产法》第304条要求美国法院在为外国破产程序提供协助时考虑若干因素。保护美国债权人在外国破产程序中主张其债权时不受歧视或不便;防止优先权破产财产的实质性或欺诈性处置;外国破产程序中破产资产的分配基本上符合美国破产法;礼让。外国破产程序为个人提供了在合理情况下重新启动的机会。这项法规是美国立法者为保护国家债权人的利益和公共政策而设定的“安全阀”。
 
  Section 304 of the U.S.bankruptcy code of 1978 provides that if a debtor in a bankruptcy proceeding in a country has property in the United States,the foreign representative appointed by that foreign bankruptcy proceeding has the right to initiate auxiliary proceedings in the United States and to request court assistance in administering the debtor's property in the United States.The process is not an independent bankruptcy process,it is a subsidiary process,but it expresses the us position of seeking international cooperation in cross-border bankruptcy.Article 304 regulations,foreign representative auxiliary application filed in the United States,may request the court to give the following benefits:according to the foreign representative application,the court issued an injunction would,forbid anyone to against foreign bankruptcy of the debtor's property involved behavior,including lawsuits filed against the debtor's property and assets of the debtor to take compulsory measures;Transfer of assets of a debtor located in the United States to a foreign bankruptcy proceeding for uniform distribution;Other relief is granted on a case-by-case basis.The effect of these relief measures is obvious and fully reflects the positive attitude of the United States in cross-border bankruptcy.
       1978年《美国破产法》第304条规定,如果一国破产程序中的债务人在美国拥有财产,由该外国破产程序任命的外国代表有权在美国启动辅助程序,并有权请求法院协助管理美国债务人的财产。该程序不是一个独立的破产程序,它是一个附属程序,但它表达了美国寻求跨国破产国际合作的立场。第304条条例,外国代表在美国提出的强制辅助申请,可以要求法院给予以下好处:根据外国破产管理人的申请,法院发布了一项禁令,禁止任何人对外国破产债务人涉及财产的行为,包括申请对债务人的财产和资产采取强制措施的权利;将位于美国的债务人的资产转让给外国破产程序进行统一分配;根据具体情况给予其他救济。这些救济措施的效果明显而充分反映了美国在跨国破产中的积极态度。
 
  The subsidiary procedures created by article 304 have had a significant impact on domestic legislative reform in other countries and have been adopted in some countries.In judicial practice,however,assistant program also has some problems,met with criticism from all walks of life:on the one hand,because of the legislation did not review foreign bankruptcy proceedings to the court to consider the six factors make the detailed rules,therefore,the judge in the process of concrete used in article 304 of this law,at the discretion of the larger,which directly leads to the judicial practice inconsistent;On the other hand,if foreign bankruptcy proceedings are not assisted by auxiliary procedures in the United States,foreign representatives or creditors have the right to initiate independent bankruptcy or reorganization proceedings in the United States according to American law,and there is no provision on how to coordinate the legislation of this parallel procedure,which can easily lead to the embarrassing situation of returning to regionalism.
 
  In 1997,the United Nations commission on international trade law promulgated the model law on cross-border insolvency.Chapter 15 of the us bankruptcy code was established by us lawmakers on the basis of the model law,which aims to reconcile jurisdictional conflicts between us courts and foreign courts and provide a suitable legal framework for international cooperation.
 
  Section 1517 of the United States bankruptcy code provides for the application process for recognition by a foreign representative in a United States court.The provision states that the foreign representative shall provide two certificates and one statement:including:a document certifying the existence of a qualified foreign procedure and the authenticity of its identity;Submit notes on foreign procedures.The establishment of the procedure simplifies the process of recognition of foreign insolvency proceedings by the courts so that they can make a decision on recognition as soon as possible.
 
  Section 1517 of the United States bankruptcy code provides for the application process for recognition by a foreign representative in a United States court.The rule states that foreign procedures should be recognized as soon as possible if they do not clearly violate U.S.public policy.The application of chapter 15 to public policy is conditional on--a"clear"violation of public policy,reflecting the cautious attitude of us courts in applying public policy to refuse to recognize and assist foreign bankruptcy proceedings.
 
  Once the application has been approved,foreign insolvency proceedings will be divided into"main proceedings"and"non-main proceedings"according to the criteria of the location of the debtor's principal interest centre and the debtor's business office,thus obtaining different relief measures:Automatic relief measures,if the foreign bankruptcy is the"main program",foreign bankruptcy property manager will automatically receive certain benefits,such as applicable to the debtor and the property is located in the United States automatically stop,take necessary measures to ensure that the property of the debtor in the United States by full protection and management of the debtor's business and exercise the power of the trustee in bankruptcy and guarantee agreement after the start of the validity of the termination,etc.Discretionary relief where the foreign insolvency proceedings are"non-primary proceedings",the court will only give appropriate relief at its discretion,such as stopping individual ACTS and proceedings against the property,rights and obligations of the debtor;Cessation of enforcement of the debtor's property;Suspension of assignment,mortgage or other disposition of the debtor's property,etc.The difference between the two procedural remedies is that automatic remedies apply only to"primary procedures"and discretionary remedies apply to both.Temporary relief measures,in a foreign country after the filing of bankruptcy administrator before making decision,the court,the court may also,at the request of the foreign insolvency administrator,as appropriate,to give temporary relief,the provisional remedies will be terminated when admitted to apply for permission,and not get in the way of"main application",also can't the government regulation behavior is forbidden.
 
  The United States adopted a new bankruptcy law in 2005,incorporating the model law into its chapter 15,and was the most complete application of the model law to date.The new bankruptcy law after reform adopts the mode of main bankruptcy proceedings supplemented by non-main bankruptcy proceedings and territorial bankruptcy proceedings.This reform not only retains the provisions of article 304 auxiliary procedures,but also adjusts the recognition and assistance system of foreign bankruptcy proceedings.The U.S.reform in cross-border bankruptcy reflects its attitude of seeking international cooperation and provides reference for other countries to improve their domestic legislation.

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