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Assignment代写范文|希腊古典人文主义

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文章导读:本文是一篇Assignment代写范文,本文主要讨论了希腊古典人文主义。希腊古典人文主义是在对人性的探究与思索中逐渐形成的,其本质是对人的灵魂的塑造和对理性精神的培养...
  本文是一篇Assignment代写范文,本文主要讨论了希腊古典人文主义。希腊古典人文主义是在对人性的探究与思索中逐渐形成的,其本质是对人的灵魂的塑造和对理性精神的培养,倡导一种在善之普遍性原则指导下的生活。古典人文主义的初衷是解决雅典城邦危机,但在这一过程中,在对人性的深刻认识基础上,它确立了人之为人的普遍性原则,创立了一种理性精神的美。这种普遍性原则使希腊人文精神不仅属于希腊民族,而且成为了世界性的文化遗产,对后世的影响深远而持续。

       本文Assignment代写范文题目为:Classical Greek humanism,以下为范文全文,范文格式和内容仅供留学生参考学习,如有Assignment代写需要请联系网站客服。
 
Assignment代写范文|希腊古典人文主义
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  When it comes to humanism,people often think of the Renaissance as a cultural trend that began during the Renaissance,or even the sameness of the two."It's a cliche repeated in every college and high school textbook and guidebook."Even some encyclopedias of philosophy explain this entry:humanism started in Italy in the second half of the 14th century and then spread to other European countries,becoming one of the important factors of modern culture.Similar expressions can be found in both regular and serious academic publications.This approach not only ignores the historical nature of the term,but also makes the word humanism inferior in connotation and spiritual temperament.Humanism is actually a cultural tradition originating from ancient Greece.Its main purpose is to understand,analyze and explore human nature,to give rational education and training to people,and to give spiritual guidance to people on how to live better.To the ancient greeks,man was the animal of the city-state.The well-being of individual citizens of a city-state depends on the rise and fall of the city-state,the rise and fall of the city-state depends on the rise and fall of morality,and the rise and fall of morality depends on the good and evil of the citizens of the city-state.Therefore,the focus of all the passion of the Greek humanists lies in the shaping of the soul,the concern for the heart and the cultivation of the nobility of human reason,so as to achieve the harmonious state between the individual and himself,the individual and the city-state,and the individual and the society on the basis of reason.The original intention of classical humanism is to solve the crisis of Athens,but in this process,on the basis of a deep understanding of human nature,it establishes the universal principle of human being,and creates a kind of beauty of rational spirit.This principle of universality makes the Greek humanistic spirit not only belong to the Greek nation,but also become the world cultural heritage,which has a far-reaching and lasting influence on later generations.
       谈到人文主义,人们常常会想到,谈到人文主义,人们常常把文艺复兴看作是文艺复兴时期开始的一种文化潮流,甚至是二者的共同点。“这在每一本大学和高中的教科书和指南中都是重复的陈词滥调。”甚至有些百科全书也是如此。哲学的解释:人文主义起源于14世纪下半叶的意大利,然后传播到欧洲其他国家,成为现代文化的重要因素之一。在正规的学术刊物和严肃的学术刊物上都可以找到类似的表达方式。这种方式没有人文主义是一种源于古希腊的文化传统,其主要目的是了解、分析和探索人性,给予理性的教育。对人们进行培训,对人们如何更好地生活给予精神指导。对古希腊人来说,人是城邦的动物。城邦公民的福祉取决于城邦的兴衰,城邦的兴衰取决于国家的兴衰。道德的兴衰,道德的兴衰,有赖于城邦公民的善恶,因此,希腊人文主义者所有激情的焦点在于灵魂的塑造、心灵的关怀和人类理性的高尚修养,从而在理性的基础上实现个人与自己、个人与城邦、个人与社会的和谐状态,古典人文主义的初衷是解决雅典危机,但在这一过程中,在深刻理解胡适的基础上人的本性,确立了人的普遍性原则,创造了一种理性精神的美,这种普遍性原则使希腊人文精神不仅属于希腊民族,而且成为世界文化遗产,具有深远而持久的影响。文艺复兴文化对后世的影响
 
  Greek humanism is gradually formed in the exploration and reflection of humanity,the human nature is the basic understanding of the body and heart,spirit and flesh,and the unity of the perceptual and the rational,its basic ideal of people and the general pursuit of shape physically beautiful people,is both a secular,is holy:is"with the spirit of the body"and"spiritual senses of"harmonious and unified.The beginning of this grand undertaking was Homer,and the end was the glorious"three Grecian philosophers"of the classical age.
       希腊人文主义是在对人类的探索和反思中逐步形成的,人的本性是对人的身心、精神和肉体的基本认识,是感性与理性的统一,是人的基本理想,是形塑人的一般追求。既是世俗的,又是圣洁的:是“以身之灵”与“以心之灵”的和谐统一。这项伟大事业的开端是荷马,而终点则是古典时代光荣的“三位希腊哲学家”。
 
  Blind poet Homer is undoubtedly the father of Greek humanism.The poet's immortalized epics,the Iliad and the Odyssey,were considered treasures of wisdom in ancient Greece,"the basis of school education in all city-states."Homer lived in the 9th to 8th century BC,which inherited the Aegean civilization in the age of minoth-mycenaean and the Athens civilization in the golden age of Greece.Homer was one of many wandering minstrels in Greece at that time.The reason why he is still immortal today is that he recorded various legends and myths in words through his poetic imagination."Homer's artistry,"belinsky writes,"is a melting pot through which the coarse ore of folktales,poems,and fragments is turned into pure gold."Homer lived in the early period of human beings,the growth period of human civilization,and the formation stage of Greek personality.He advocated naturalism,and his spiritual life presented a"fresh and joyful state of youth".The greeks described by Homer are simple,passionate,unrestrained and free,enjoying the joy of life in their natural nature.The Olympian gods of the epic"feasted all day long."And there were beautiful lyres held by Apollo,and literary goddesses with beautiful songs."Homer is not shy about the beauty of the body,the beauty of the face,the scenes of feasting,the pleasures of the senses.Homer is a true eulogizer,eulogizer and advocate of the beauty of human nature.
       盲人诗人荷马无疑是希腊人文主义之父,诗人不朽的史诗《伊利亚特》和《奥德赛》被认为是古希腊“所有城邦学校教育的基础”的智慧宝藏,荷马生活在公元前9-8世纪,继承了爱琴文明。米诺斯·迈锡尼时代的伊昂和希腊黄金时代的雅典文明。荷马是当时希腊众多流浪的吟游诗人之一。他之所以能长生不老,是因为他通过诗意的想象用文字记录了各种传说和神话。贝林斯基写道:“瑞是一个熔炉,通过它,民间故事、诗歌和碎片的粗矿变成了纯金。”荷马生活在人类的早期、人类文明的成长期和希腊人格的形成阶段。他提倡自然主义和他的精神。生活呈现出一种“清新愉悦的青春状态”,荷马笔下的希腊人朴素、热情、放荡不羁、自由,在大自然中享受着生活的乐趣,史诗中的奥林匹亚诸神“终日盛宴”,阿波罗手执优美的抒情诗,文学女神风趣。H美丽的歌曲。“荷马不害羞的美丽的身体,美丽的脸,宴请的场面,快乐的感官。荷马是一个真正的歌颂者,歌颂者和倡导人性的美丽。
 
  Homer's humanism is embodied in the relationship between man and woman.The Homeric gods are both divine and homomorphic,with human joys and sorrows.Sometimes it is difficult to tell whether they are gods on Olympus or people on earth.Perhaps this is the ideal of the poet,to shape people according to the image of god:both the fullness and warmth of human nature,and the power and restraint of god.In Homer,the more approachable god is,the more god-like man is;God Shared joy with man,and man Shared joy with god.But apart from the excitement of the dance between human beings and gods,what we see is the contest between human instinct and reason.The humanist elements contained in Homer's epic poems are the inexhaustible source of the greeks."the Greek world lives in Homer,just as human beings live in the air."Homer's humanism,however,was more concerned with the natural nature of man,at a time when human reason was just emerging from its infancy and showing only a faint light that could only be awakened by divine power.As a profound influence on the European civilization tradition,classical Greek humanism is not only completed by Greek myths,poems and tragedies,but also belongs to the philosophy of the classical Greek era.
       荷马人本主义体现在人与人的关系中,荷马神既有神性又有同态,既有人的喜怒哀乐,有时很难分辨是奥林匹斯山上的神,还是地球上的人,也许这就是诗人的理想,是按照神的形像阿,人的本性的丰满和温暖,神的能力和约束。在荷马,神越亲近人,神就越像人;神与人同乐,人与神同乐。但除了人与神跳舞的兴奋外,我们所看见的是人的本能和理性之间的较量。荷马史诗中所包含的人文因素是希腊人取之不尽的源泉。“希腊人生活在荷马世界,就像人生活在空气中一样。”荷马的人文主义更关注人的自然本性,在一个时刻。E当人类理性刚刚从幼年期开始出现,只有微弱的光才能被神力唤醒,古典希腊人文主义作为对欧洲文明传统的深刻影响,不仅由希腊神话、诗歌和悲剧完成,而且属于古典希腊时代的哲学。
 
  The symbol of Greek history entering the classical era is the victory of the Greek and polish war.The victory of any war is itself a cause for celebration.Had to Greece's great significance to the victory of the war of liberation in addition is that the result is decided to the Greek slaves or master question,what is more important is its influence-successful boycotted the propulsion of Oriental autocracy to the west,the principle of"make Asia lost all power",and"cultural and spiritual power saved".Then Greece,and Athens in particular,entered its most glorious period.The rational wisdom of Greek humanism rooted in western civilization was born in the heyday of the democratic political system of Athens and completed in the period of Athens from prosperity to crisis.Socrates,Plato and Aristotle are the inventors,completers and perfectionists of classical humanism.
 
  It is well known that Greek culture,when it turns to philosophy,produces a most splendid flower.Greek culture from Homer to Socrates has taken a turn.Homer invented a lineage of gods for the greeks,in order to find human reason in the divinity,which often manifests as"divine miracle".The origin of any civilization is first religion,Greece is no exception.There are hundreds of gods in Homer's epic,and Herodotus'history is full of records of asking god for divination and requesting oracle.The greeks,in the early days of civilization,were very good at such things as apparitions."Socrates alone was not attracted to them,for he knew that science and art were not the products of divine deeds,and that wisdom was by no means secret.The real science is in the open mind."Socrates turns his gaze from the divine to the human."Socrates is particularly respected.As Cicero said,because he brought philosophy from heaven to earth.What humanists constantly demand is that philosophy be the school of life,dedicated to solving the common problems of mankind."By focusing on human affairs and caring about human affairs,Socrates not only realizes the turn from the divine world to the human world,but also completes the turn to the human itself,that is,the focus changes from the external perceptual object to the inner soul.The vigorous vitality of the greeks determined that they were never ascetics,and even Socrates could not avoid the ancient Greek rhyme.He would look with wonder at the beauty of the face and the vigor of the body,but he thought that it was the noble soul that made the man perfect.Socrates establishes the principle that the goodness of the soul is a more fundamental problem for man.
 
  Socrates used up all his passion and wisdom for the athenians to live a virtuous and happy life.Even as he was being executed,he was teaching people not to focus on trying to get money and fame and glory without thinking about truth and reason and the perfection of the soul.He exhorted people not to"put practical benefits above spiritual and moral well-being."Socrates was a true humanist.He cast the model of western reason and personality with his thoughts and behaviors--"a tranquil and pious moral image".The turning of the Greek spirit in Socrates is also the turning point of the world spirit.Since then,rational spirits have been as deeply rooted in western cultural and spiritual traditions as genes,though times have given different explanations.But whatever problems the future finds,"in principle,the basic features are already contained in ancient learning."
 
  Plato went on in the direction of Socrates.He is the faithful record and successor of Socratic theory and thought,and develops and surpasses his teacher in succession.When Socrates discusses the relationship between city-state and human,he emphasizes that the individual citizen himself,the good of individual soul and rational moderation are the basis of city-state justice.Plato's concern first lies in the city-state itself,taking the politics and ethical philosophy of the city-state as the center.Philosophical thoughts are the reflection of the spirit of The Times.City-state is the foundation of classical humanism.In ancient Greece,the city-state community was the basis of citizenship.Without city-state identity,it could not even be called human.Individuals can not live alone,can not rely on individual power to achieve self-sufficiency,so the public order and common spirit of the city-state community has a special importance.City-state justice has priority over individual justice.Individual justice is cultivated from the enlightenment of city-state justice,that is,the moral enlightenment of individual depends on the justice of city-state system itself.The good and bad of individual character,the good and bad of individual virtue,the nobility and inferiority of soul depend on the good and bad of city-state system itself.This is a phenomenon we often talk about:in a good system,bad people can become good people;in a bad system,good people become bad.
 
  What is city-state justice?Before answering the question,Plato proposed that the state should have three virtues:first,wisdom,the wisdom to govern,belonging to a few rulers;Second,brave,belongs to the strength to defend the country's military;The third is temperance,the control of emotional desires,a virtue which,unlike these two virtues,is not limited to some but to all.Justice seems to be the fourth virtue.But it is not the other of these virtues,but the force that governs temperance,courage,and wisdom."Wherever you find other virtues,you are bound to find justice itself already there."That is to say,justice does not exist alone in relation to an external,single,concrete act,but is its own intrinsic character.Plato says,"true justice is not about external concrete ACTS,but about internal,intrinsic determinations of justice itself.The true good is not an act of goodness,but a general principle,a phase of goodness.""Only the common,the idea,the good are essential things."Since justice is not a specific act,but a determination of the intrinsic universality,when a specific just act is done,the intrinsic character of justice itself remains,and justice or good is eternal.Therefore,the overall character of justice is universal,single and eternal.The discovery of the universal principle of justice or good,the phase,is Plato's transcendence of Socrates.Socrates in the endless questioning,discuss what is the real justice or good,explore what kind of life is a valuable and meaningful life,but Socrates did not give an answer,Plato completed the teacher's unfinished career.
 
  To establish the universal principle of justice or good is to establish the universal standard of justice or good of the city-state,and to establish the moral and value direction of the city-state.But how to achieve the justice of the city-state?Where do temperance,courage,and wisdom come from?Plato says,"you can't get these qualities from a city-state other than from an individual."Where do these personal qualities come from?This further questioning leads to one of the core contents of humanism:human indoctrination.Indoctrination is to educate people under the guidance of the universality of goodness,cultivate and cultivate people's character,and make them have the moral quality required by the city.Education is an important content of humanistic thought,and the cultivation of human reason and the shaping of soul are the core of education.Humanists believe that this is a more internal and deeper spiritual accomplishment which is indispensable to make people perfect.To shape the soul you have to know the soul.Plato thought that the human soul was made up of two parts:"one is what men use for thinking and reasoning.Call it the rational part of the soul;The other is that which men use to feel the stirring of material desires,such as love,hunger,and thirst,and which may be called the irrational or lustful part of the mind,and which is the companion of the various satisfactions and pleasures."These two qualities in the soul are both the better and the worse,and thus determine that man is both his own master and his own slave.When the bad part is under the control of the good part,it is its own master.And when a man's desires exceed his reason in power,he is"his own slave."Plato thinks that desire is the greatest external enemy,on the one hand it is the largest part of every person's soul,on the other hand it is the most greedy.Real being,the"phase"of justice or good,resides in the rational part of the soul.It is eternal and comes closest to god.The purpose of education is to train and cultivate the intellectual part of the soul,so that man has the power of reason to control and dominate his emotional desires,so as to prevent the confusion of the senses from affecting the clarity of the soul.This is characteristic of Platonic philosophy.He"directed philosophy in the direction of the rational,supersensible world,and raised consciousness into the realm of the spirit".For Plato,physical and emotional existence is temporary,fluid,and dead,while the soul is eternal.But the impermanence of the soul is not automatic.It is only when the soul is free from the temptations of external desires and in a state of clarity and tranquility that the rational part of the soul can distinguish between justice and injustice.To know and grasp the true good and truth.The soul achieves immortality through the spirit.
 
  Socrates and Plato are the inventors and originators of classical humanistic thought.Western philosophers who followed Plato have come to rely on him as descendants,even of Aristotle,who opposed him most.Whitehead,a British and American philosopher,once said,"twenty-five hundred years of western philosophy is nothing more than a series of footnotes to Plato."This evaluation does not contain the special preference of philosophers,but no one will deny the pioneering significance of Plato's spiritual philosophy and its profound influence on later generations.For this reason,Aristotle from distant Macedonia is not intended as the object of further discussion.Although he was"the most learned man in the ancient world",the emphasis here is on discussing the basic spirit of classical humanism in the original sense.

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