来源:网络整理    作者:留学生活网    发布时间:2019-06-30 14:27    阅读: 次    文章分类:范文参考





  In 1959, France produced a group of young directors who had never been educated in proper film theory. They despised the slick and delicate "good films". The term "new wave" was coined by the passion for movies and, of course, the rich experience of watching movies. The new wave really kicked off with the release of two commercial films by Claude chabrol, and the grand prize showing at the cannes film festival in May 1959 of Aaron rainey's Hiroshima love and truffaut's four hundred stories. The emergence of the French new wave has a profound significance to the development of the world's film industry, which has been affected for more than 50 years.
       1959年,法国产生了一群从未受过正规电影理论教育的年轻导演。他们鄙视那些圆滑而精致的“好电影”。“新浪潮”一词是由对电影的热情创造的,当然,还有观看电影的丰富经验。新浪潮的真正开始是由克劳德·查布洛尔(Claude Chabrol)发行的两部商业电影,以及1959年5月在戛纳电影节(Cannes Film Festival)放映的亚伦·雷尼(Aaron Rainey)的广岛之爱(Hiroshima Love)和特鲁法特(Truffaut)的《四百个故事》(400 Stories)的大奖。法国新浪潮的出现,对世界电影业的发展具有深远的意义,世界电影业已经受到50多年的影响。

  Try to distinguish the various branches of the "new wave", a powerful and widespread phenomenon.

  Based on "the movie handbook," it features five stars, plus its founders, editor turned director doniol-vachous and Pierre Custer. They wrote for not only the film handbook, but also the art and the film review. Most of them were members of the film library and the Objectif 49 film club or devoted fans. They are still in the ascendant, driving the world from critic to director. Some unprecedented success, such as the five tigers; others, such as doniol wakmulai, are mediocre and underwhelming. Andre s. labarte was the most influential director of "the handbook". He was well versed in literature, painting, philosophy, and finally made movies. Olivier assayas, a French upstart in the 1990s, was also editor of the handbook and is regarded as its direct descendant.
       根据《电影手册》,它有五颗星,加上创始人,编辑变成导演多尼奥瓦科斯和皮埃尔卡斯特。他们不仅为电影手册写作,还为艺术和电影评论写作。他们大多数是电影图书馆和Objectif 49电影俱乐部的成员或忠实的影迷。他们仍然在上升,推动世界从批评家到导演。一些史无前例的成功,如五只老虎;另一些成功,如多尼奥·瓦克穆莱,平庸而平庸。安德烈·拉巴特是《手册》最有影响力的导演。他精通文学、绘画、哲学,最后还拍了电影。上世纪90年代的法国新贵奥利维尔·阿莱亚斯(Olivier Analyas)也是该手册的编辑,并被视为该手册的直系后代。

  These new directors make movies have elite thinking, will be considered intellectuals in society, the movie also like paper proposes philosophy, the theory of social, political, such as taken from Siberia and masterpiece "dam" Chris ・ mark, and support the mark in the documentary film, drama has amazing Alan ・ ray is discussed. Strictly speaking, mark can't categorize, he's unique, and he magically turns cynicism and critical self-consciousness into poetry. In addition, Henry kirby, in the slow style of Rene and duras, devotes himself to the themes of memory and forgetting. The first film, a long absence, won the grand prize at the Venice film festival. Journalists turned scriptwriters, such as jean gehhou and armand gatti, often get together as intellectuals without necessarily sharing a common goal or influencing each other.

  Melville's personal style is unique, specializing in the cold cop and existential lonely killer genre. Because Melville was accustomed to writing and directing, he was regarded as the highest ideal mode of film making by the critics and directors of the film handbook. Another lone ranger is francie, who brings together horror films and documentaries to create a personal style that, thanks to his work with langalois co-founding the film library, is less likely to be classified as any big faction.

  It refers to those who used to direct in the film industry, such as vadim, and Jacques rozier, who came from the television industry and made "goodbye Philippines" with real TV and three machine skills. The improvisation, purity and naturalness of the film are hailed as "the new wave of the new wave". Malou, who made "the elevator to the death row," and astluc, who argued about the camera pen, are also included in this category.

  In addition to Rene and annes vadar, there was jean roush, and Mario ruspoli, a former painter and journalist. Louis malou, best known for his feature films, also co-directed the documentary silent world in 1956. Among them, jean roush is the documentary filmmaker that levitt, rosier, jean ostash and others admitted to having the greatest influence. His filmmaking skills were seen not only by lumiere, flaherty, Griffith, and rossellini, but also by younger directors after the new wave.

  Originally, he was a writer and a filmmaker, such as alain rob-grier, who took over the French literary world with his "anti-fiction". Margaret duras, who wrote "songs of India" and the screenplay for "Hiroshima love" for Rene, is another.

  According to general opinions, American scholars David baudwell and Christine Thompson divided new wave directors into two categories in the book a history of cinema: a brief introduction. The other is the left bank group, who were originally senior writers and artists before moving to feature film shooting. This classification method has been widely discussed in the history of film.

  The first to attack the rigidity and literary adaptation of the set in mainstream films, the film handbook's champions of personal culture and romance against traditional industry, their emphasis on personal vision, their belief that film criticism is a necessary part of filmmaking, and their preference for the same photographers. At first, they had financial resources and human resources to exchange. They started by shooting short films together and then promoted to feature films.

  Urbanization is characteristic of new wave works. The "dadmovies" of the 19th century, with their opulent costumes and dialogue, are gone. The new film is a Parisian metropolis, a new generation of young people dressed in Parisian chic, hanging out in cafes, listening to jazz, driving open-top cars, partying all night and having an open relationship, their lives captured by portable cameras and recording machines. The new youth are a generation that grew up after the war, with similar ideologies, distrust of authority, and distrust of the promise of politics or love.

  Because these directors are fans, they know the history of film and the techniques of individual directors so well that they can almost recite them backwards. This was confirmed by truffaut's detailed recording of the content, aesthetics, special dialogue and even the version of Hitchcock's films when he visited him. They love movies and mix them with their lives. When they make a movie, it is necessary to pay tribute to their past movies. They use various methods to add cinematic history to the film, making the text complex and polysemous.

  Film and life are inseparable. For the new director of the film handbook, crime is not a social problem. However, the matter of making a film does not reflect reality, but appeals to film thinking. As godard said in contempt, "make a film of antonioni style with the methods of Hitchcock or hawkes."

  In addition to the five heroes, the film manual includes doniol vakhous, founder of the film manual and Niko Papatakis.

  In the 1960s, godard and truffaut reached their peak of international fame as leaders; Chabrol was the most commercial and profitable, with his masterpieces sold from 1968 to 1971; Rohmer created a lot of works from 1967 to 1972. In the 1990s, he was honored as the master of "stories of the four seasons" series. In 1969, rivette attracted public attention, and his creation has not been interrupted for decades. In 2001, he participated in the cannes film festival with "friends can't do it", revealing his master's flowing style.

  This group of directors, a little older than the manual group, are less enamored with movies, more literary, and mostly in documentaries and short films. On the whole, they are the creators of intellectuals. The work is called "the writer's film."

  The left bank group is a group of film creators gathered on the south bank of the Seine river. They do not have any organization or like the film book group with "film handbook" as the base, but they have similar artistic tendencies and are closely related to literature. Most of them were born in the 1920s. In their 20s, they lived through world war ii, much more sophisticated than the film manuals of their childhood or adolescence. Therefore, they never forget the memories and scars of the war, the violence of the war and the torture of human nature are part of their world view. They tend to be in their 30s when they start making films, and they tend to be very successful in other fields. In addition, hou, varda and gatti have all traveled around the world regularly as journalists, with a less parochial view of the world. So they make movies that are much broader than the handbooks that are just about movie history and past classics. Valda had seen fewer than 20 films when he made his first feature, and Rene, the screenwriter, knew nothing about film.

  The creators of this school like to deal with the complex temporal and spatial relationships of the subconscious. Anes varda's early short film, "short point village," deals with the constant debates between men and women over fishing village images, with voiceovers and lots of clipping. Mr Astluc USES flashbacks and narrations to describe a woman who is taken to the police station to confront the past. "Hiroshima love" and "last year in Marion bard", which are classics, splicing together the past and present, and voiceover that can't tell whether it's a real conversation or imaginary dialogue or a character's commentary on things, are all very intellectual.

  The director of the left bank school is deeply influenced by surrealism. They use the dream-like, flowing images in modern poems, which are not subject to various fantasies of institutional norms, as texts. In particular, love in Hiroshima, last year in Marion bard and the immortal woman all use this kind of voice-over to create illusory and subliminal atmosphere. The literary quality of modern poetry has also become one of the hallmarks of the left bank school.

  During the occupation, the COIC canceled the screening system of one ticket and two films, which would harm the film recall, and forced each feature film to have a short film or documentary before showing, resulting in the boom of short films and documentaries. Post-war choice auxiliary system more development space for documentary, most of the left bank sent the director started with documentary, such as ray nai, varda, francois, duras, and lu shi, mark all full-time documentaries, they uphold the traditional documentary, pay attention to the picturesque composition and camera movement, and influenced by eisenstein montage splicing method, good contrast, cross cutting, is in the way, cause the effect of shock.

  As the left bank directors' political stance is generally to the left, their aesthetic concept is also special. For ray nye and varda brecht in France at the time the influence of the theory of "alienation", they are not encouraged to role identification, so very little information provided by the role of background and personality, such as "short cape village", "Hiroshima of love", "last year in Marion bud" of the main characters are no name, occupation, social relationship clearly, even no ideological and psychological depth, and may even outside of the time.

  Because under the condition of the equipment, funds are limited, on the left bank sent also edification out a silent film, first add music afterwards, effect and the dialogue after the system method, combined with surreal and modern poetry artistic conception, reading the tension between the images and sound, and through the splicing to the past and now tied together, plus the literariness tone, left bank sent on intellectual work beyond the "new wave".

  The directors of the left bank are generally on the left side of the political stand, and tend to be anti-authority and anti-system. For example, duras believes that mainstream films are completely tools of social control. "The pursuit of perfection of commercial films, which USES technology to maintain the established system, reflects its surrender to social norms." "Commercial films can be very clever, but they are rarely intellectual," she warns. Duras herself is a strong advocate for intellectual filmmaking. Her films discuss violence, pain and sex extensively, but she insists on refusing to make them easy to understand. Therefore, except for a few devotees who love duras, her works are difficult for the public to understand.

  Francie is unique in any movie category and hard to categorize. Like the left bank directors, he makes both documentaries and dramas. For the pain of war, he combines anxiety, depression, frustration and psychological trauma into one in the way of terror and self-treatment. The wizard, who began to promote film culture together with langalois during the fall of the People's Republic of China, makes full use of the poetic narration and juxtaposition editing that the left bank school is good at in animal blood, which records the tragic situation of the slaughterhouse.


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