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Essay代写案例|美国的控烟方式

来源:网络整理    作者:留学生活网    发布时间:2019-06-26 15:43    阅读: 次    文章分类:范文参考

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文章导读:本文是一篇Essay代写范文,本文主要讨论了美国的控烟方式。随着科技的发展,很多研究机构推出了大量的烟草危害报告,医学界的临床经验也证明吸烟对身体的危害。...
  本文是一篇Essay代写范文,本文主要讨论了美国的控烟方式。随着科技的发展,很多研究机构推出了大量的烟草危害报告,医学界的临床经验也证明吸烟对身体的危害。美国为了控烟,相应进行了一系列的立法,不仅限制烟草公司在媒体上的广告,也再次修改了香烟包装上的警告词,指出吸烟有可能导致癌症与死亡。同时,对于二手烟造成的危害认识也越来越多。各个州和地方的立法机构也开始行动起来,逐步地限制在公众场所吸烟的行为。

       以下为范文全文,范文格式和内容仅供留学生参考学习,禁止抄袭,如有Essay代写需要请联系网站客服。
 
Essay代写案例|美国的控烟方式
美国禁烟标志
 
  John Ralph,25,arrived in 1610 as part of the third wave of English settlers to colonize Virginia in North America.Their ships passed through the mouth of the James river to jamestown,founded by the first two groups,only to find that nine out of ten of the early arrivals had been killed by famine and disease.Ralph settled down here,fell in love with pocahontas,the local Indian princess,and married her,making a famous story in American history.
       约翰·拉尔夫,25岁,1610年作为第三批英国殖民者的一部分来到北美的弗吉尼亚殖民地。他们的船穿过詹姆斯河的河口到达詹姆斯敦,由前两批人建立,结果发现10个早期移民中有9个死于饥荒和疾病。拉尔夫在这里定居,爱上了这里的智慧。当地的印度公主波卡洪塔斯与她结婚,成为美国历史上的一个著名故事。
 
  Another thing Ralph did,though not as famous as his marriage,was one of the most important events in colonial America.He succeeded in introducing the varieties of tobacco from the west Indies beloved by Europeans to Virginia,where he established the first tobacco plantation for export.Soon tobacco became the largest agricultural product in the colonies.Before the cotton gin made cotton the mainstay of southern life,Virginia's tobacco plantations supported the entire regional economy.
       拉尔夫所做的另一件事,虽然不如他的婚姻出名,但却是殖民地美国最重要的事情之一。他成功地将西印度群岛深受欧洲人喜爱的烟草品种引进弗吉尼亚州,在那里他建立了第一个出口烟草种植园。不久,烟草成为该州最大的农产品。在轧棉厂使棉花成为南方生活的支柱之前,弗吉尼亚的烟草种植园支撑着整个地区的经济。
 
  Smoking became fashionable among Europeans in the 18th and 19th centuries and was brought to the world by colonists,while the vast and fertile lands of the southern United States made it the world's largest tobacco producer.The tobacco industry is one of the government's main sources of tax revenue.In 1890,the U.S.government collected about$1.1 million in taxes from tobacco,which by 1970 had grown to more than$2 billion.
       在18世纪和19世纪,吸烟在欧洲人中流行起来,并被殖民者带到了世界各地,而美国南部广阔肥沃的土地使它成为世界上最大的烟草生产国。烟草业是政府税收的主要来源之一。1890年,美国政府征收了大约1.1英里的税收。到1970年,烟草税已经增长到20多亿美元。
 
  Interestingly,before the 1960s,smoking was long considered a healthy activity.When the Spanish came to America in the 16th century and discovered Indian tobacco,they thought it was a wonderful plant.A Spanish doctor who had come to Mexico at the time wrote:"soldiers in difficult circumstances can prevent colds,hunger,and thirst by smoking,and all the people of the west Indies can relieve their tropical discomforts by smoking this god-given herb."There were also attempts to restrict tobacco,but they were motivated by puritanical morality,because the puritans considered tobacco use--including smoking or chewing--to be a form of hedonism.In the 17th century the Massachusetts colony tried several times to ban smoking in public places.Not only did the ban fail,but people in New England were lured by the huge profits of the tobacco industry and started growing tobacco locally.By the 19th century,the region was able to export as well as produce its own tobacco.
       有趣的是,在20世纪60年代之前,吸烟一直被认为是一种健康的活动。16世纪西班牙人来到美国,发现印度烟草时,他们认为这是一种很好的植物。当时来到墨西哥的一位西班牙医生写道:“处境艰难的士兵可以通过吸烟来预防感冒、饥饿和口渴,等等。西印度群岛的人民可以通过吸食这种上帝赐予的药草来缓解他们在热带的不适。“也有人试图限制烟草,但他们受到清教徒道德的驱使,因为清教徒认为烟草的使用——包括吸烟或咀嚼——是一种享乐主义形式。17世纪,马萨诸塞州的殖民地曾尝试过7年。RAL时代禁止在公共场所吸烟。禁令不仅失败了,而且新英格兰的人们被烟草业的巨大利润所吸引,开始在当地种植烟草。到19世纪,该地区既能出口也能生产自己的烟草。
 
  In the late 19th century,cigarettes gradually became the main way of smoking tobacco,and smoking was also widely used by men,women and children in various social groups.In 1870,Americans consumed 13.9 million cigarettes a year,or 0.36 cigarettes per person.Sixty years later,in 1940,the average was 997.During this time,Christians in the United States promoted a very powerful temperance movement,which believed that drinking caused social degradation,and the anti-tobacco movement was also carried out.The temperance movement succeeded in bringing about the eighteenth amendment to the constitution,which banned the manufacture,sale,and transportation of alcoholic beverages within the United States.At the same time,14 states had anti-smoking laws,but they were not enforced and were quickly overturned.
       19世纪末,香烟逐渐成为吸烟的主要方式,吸烟也被各种社会群体的男人、女人和儿童广泛使用。1870年,美国人每年消费1390万支香烟,人均0.36支。60年后,1940年,平均值为997支。在此期间,联合国的基督徒ES促进了一个非常强大的戒酒运动,认为饮酒导致社会退化,同时也开展了反烟草运动。戒酒运动成功地导致了宪法第十八修正案,该修正案禁止在联合国境内制造、销售和运输酒精饮料。同时,有14个州制定了禁烟法,但没有实施,很快被推翻。
 
  The moralistic anti-smoking campaigns of this period still leave their mark.In most states,laws limit the use of tobacco by minors.By 1950,all states banned the sale of cigarettes to minors.Some states set the age limit at 18,others at 21.
 
  Since the middle of the 18th century,people in the medical community have been saying that smoking may harm people's health.A London doctor has found six cases of nasopharyngeal cancer caused by smoking.This is the first person to link tobacco to cancer.But when the average human life expectancy was in the 40s and 50s,the number of diseases that killed people was very high,and the harmful effects of tobacco were not given much attention.
 
  It wasn't until 1939 that the medical community published its first scientific study on the link between smoking and lung cancer.By the 1950s,the evidence for the link between cancer and smoking was growing.Writing in the journal of the American medical association in November 1959,the Eisenhower administration's secretary of health,Dr.Thomas berenyi,noted that"the evidence at hand has shown that smoking is a major contributor to the increasing incidence of lung cancer."
 
  With ample scientific evidence,the U.S.government took action.In 1962,John f.Kennedy's health secretary,Dr.John terry,with the President's support,announced the creation of a committee of experts to deal with the health problems caused by smoking.The committee was formed by a group of experts who had no previous views on tobacco,and was approved by the tobacco manufacturers'association and the American medical association,among others,to ensure the fairness of its conclusions.After 15 months of intensive research and investigation,the committee presented its report to the secretary of health on January 11,1964,concluding that"smoking is so harmful to health that the United States should warn and act accordingly."In addition to greatly increasing the incidence of lung cancer,heart disease is 70 percent higher among smokers,and large Numbers of bronchitis and emphysema occur,the report said.
 
  But under the American legal system,only the states have the power to restrict or even ban tobacco,and the federal government can only deal with interstate commerce.So,after the report was published,the FTC ruled that cigarette ads were misleading and required future ads to include warnings about the dangers of smoking.The warning was:"caution:smoking is harmful to health and may cause death from cancer or other diseases."Since January 1,1965,cigarette packages have had to carry the words.However,tobacco companies poured their resources into lobbying efforts in congress,which eventually legislated to change the warning to"smoking may be harmful to your health."This action of the congress has been severely criticized by the public.An editorial in the New York times described the bill as"protecting the economic interests of the tobacco industry by removing reasonable regulation".But the act,passed on July 1,1967,also required the federal government to report annually to congress on the effects of cigarette warnings and propose countermeasures.There is also a legal basis for federal research into the dangers of smoking.
 
  A year after the legislation was passed,the federal trade commission reported to congress that cigarette warnings were largely ineffective.Tobacco companies spent a lot of money on advertising in that year.TV and radio alone generated$200 million,making it the biggest source of revenue for television advertising.In response,the federal communications commission,which regulates television and radio stations,moved to limit tobacco advertising in the air.That is not easy in America,where freedom of speech is fiercely protected.A young lawyer,John banzoff,set up a group called action on smoking and health in 1967 to push for legislation to curb tobacco use.After studying a large number of tobacco advertisements on television and radio,banzaf published an open letter arguing that tobacco advertisements violate the"fairness principle"of American broadcasting.According to this principle,radio and television channels are public property,so the information broadcast must contain multiple opinions,not one voice.Banzaf said it was unfair to advertise the benefits of smoking without warning of health risks.He demanded that future ads be split equally between the two.This is tantamount to asking tobacco companies to advertise negatively themselves.The federal communications commission accepted the claim,but ruled that it could be four to one.The tobacco industry took the federal government to court,eventually going to the Supreme Court,where the tobacco industry's lawsuit was dismissed.Faced with this situation,the tobacco industry gradually withdrew from television and radio channels.It is also a major victory for those on the smoking side.
 
  Since then,there have been numerous reports from research institutions and clinical evidence of the dangers of smoking.The U.S.congress responded with a series of legislation that not only restricted tobacco companies'advertising in the media,but also rewrote warnings on cigarette packages that smoking can cause cancer and death.Meanwhile,there is growing awareness of the dangers of second-hand smoke.
 
  As a result,state and local legislatures began to act to gradually limit smoking in public places.Restaurants,hotels and other public places are smoke-free,and only small no-smoking areas are open.Smoking is allowed in very few offices,and there are even signs of dying out.Federal and state governments began to impose high taxes on cigarettes,and some states even restricted smoking in private households with children.The most significant was the 1998 out-of-court settlement between 46 state governments and major tobacco companies.The attorneys general of the 46 states went to court to ask the tobacco companies to reimburse the states for the medical expenses they had to pay for patients with smoking-related illnesses,and they banded together in congress to ask for further legislation.Finally,in June 1997,with the help of congress,tobacco companies reached an agreement with the states to pay the states$206 billion over 25 years in medical compensation costs.In addition,the company has put up a large sum of money to fund anti-smoking campaigns.
 
  After half a century of anti-smoking campaigns,the proportion of smokers in America has fallen from around 45%in the 1960s to around 20%today.However,the rate has been hovering for several years,and there is even a slight rise in smoking among the younger generation.The public health community in the United States has repeatedly warned against this.It seems that it is not possible to give up smoking completely in a short time.

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