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Essay代写范文|美国电力市场化

来源:网络整理    作者:留学生活网    发布时间:2019-06-20 14:58    阅读: 次    文章分类:范文参考

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文章导读:本文是一篇Essay代写范文,范文内容主要讨论了美国电力市场化。美国电力市场化发端于佛罗里达电力联合集团的电力市场实践,这是一种自然发育的电力市场化模式...
  本文是一篇Essay代写范文,范文内容主要讨论了美国电力市场化。美国电力市场化发端于佛罗里达电力联合集团的电力市场实践,这是一种自然发育的电力市场化模式,它经历了由紧急功率交换、制定联合运行政策、经济功率交换一直到电力交易市场等不同阶段,在不断发展和完善的过程中为美国的电力市场化积累了经验,并成为后来美国各州形式各异的电力市场化初中可资借鉴的基础。美国电力市场化模式的竞争比较充分,交易模式较为复杂。

       以下为范文内容全文,范文格式和内容仅供留学生参考学习之用,如有Essay代写需要请联系网站。
 
Essay代写范文|美国电力市场化
 
  American electric power originated in Florida power joint group,the marketization of electric power market practice,it is a natural development of the electricity market model,it has experienced by the emergency power exchange,joint operation policy,economic power exchange has been to different stages,such as electric power market in the process of continuous development and improvement provide experiences for the electricity market in the United States,and became the different states form power marketization of junior high school foundation for reference.
       美国电力起源于佛罗里达州电力联合集团,在电力市场的市场化实践中,它是一种自然发展的电力市场模式,它经历了紧急电力交易、联合经营政策、经济电力交易等不同阶段,在电力市场化的过程中,一直是电力市场化的产物。F的不断发展和完善为美国电力市场提供了经验,并成为不同形式的初中电力市场化的借鉴。
 
  In the 1940s and 1950s,with the rapid development of Florida's industry,the demand for electricity increased rapidly.Based on the need for mutual supply support and improved reliability,the power companies established contact lines to provide power exchange in case of emergency,thus starting the market transaction between power companies.
       20世纪40年代和50年代,随着佛罗里达州工业的快速发展,对电力的需求迅速增长,电力公司在需要相互支持和提高可靠性的基础上,建立了紧急情况下提供电力交换的联络线,从而开始了电力公司之间的市场交易。
 
  The unique structure and development process of American electric power executives are related to the historical situation of American electric power industry and the industrial policy of American government.Because 75%of America's electricity industry to the private,so although the U.S.government aware of the power generation,transmission,distribution and the market structure of the power supply adopts vertical integration might hamper competition,but also can't treat them like Britain state power industry adopted a policy of market restructuring,but only the main by relaxing into control,in a larger program to play the role of market mechanism.In 1978,the United States enacted the new energy policy act,which further liberalized the electricity market.In 1995 the federal energy regulatory commission issued the mega-nopr proposal to facilitate the opening of transmission services.In 1996,the United States enacted two more laws,specifying the open transmission of electricity on the grid and the charging standards.Transmission line routing power network operating enterprises to provide transmission services to power generation enterprises,through which wholesale users can directly purchase electricity from power generation enterprises.In this way,after the marketization of the secondary power generation field,the utility of transmission lines is formed,and the wholesale power market is comprehensive and fair.
       美国电力管理者的独特结构和发展过程,与美国电力工业的历史形势和美国政府的产业政策有关。因为美国75%的电力工业都是私有的,所以尽管美国政府意识到了发电、输电、配电等问题。而电力供应的市场结构采取垂直整合可能会阻碍竞争,但也不能像英国国家电力行业那样对待它们采取市场重组政策,而只能以放松管制为主,在更大的程序中发挥市场机制的作用。1978年,美国颁布了新的能源供应体系。能源政策法案,进一步放开了电力市场。1995年,联邦能源监管委员会发布了《超级NOPR计划》,以促进输电服务的开放。1996年,美国又颁布了两项法律,规定了电网上的电力开放传输和充电标准。输电线路R将电网经营企业引入电网,为发电企业提供输电服务,通过电网经营企业批发用户可以直接向发电企业购电,这样,在二次发电领域市场化后,形成了输电线路的公用事业,形成了批发电力。市场是全面公平的。
 
  California is the pioneer of American electric power marketization.California model can be called the modern version of American electric power marketization.On March 31,1998,the California electricity market officially opened,becoming the first state in the United States to allow electricity users to choose the generator.In California's electricity marketization model,power users can directly sign power purchase contracts with power producers,and the grid is opened to power producers and provides transmission services to users.The electricity market operates through two new agencies,the California power exchange and the California independent system operator.ISO manages three key markets:the competitive ancillary services procurement market,the real-time energy market,and the enabler market.PX operates three energy markets:a daily auction conducted hourly the next day,a daily market and a bulk futures market.ISO controls transmission networks and power dispatching.PX develops and submits a transaction plan to ISO,which forms the basis for ISO to coordinate grid operations.
       加州是美国电力市场化的先驱,加州模式可以称为美国电力市场化的现代版,1998年3月31日,加州电力市场正式开放,成为美国第一个允许电力用户使用的州。选择发电机。在加州的电力市场化模式中,电力用户可以直接与电力生产商签订购电合同,电网向电力生产商开放,并向用户提供输电服务。电力市场通过两个新的机构进行运作,即California power exchange和California independent system operator.iso管理三个关键市场:竞争性辅助服务采购市场、实时能源市场和使能市场。px管理三个能源市场:每天每小时进行一次拍卖,第二天进行一次拍卖,每天进行一次拍卖。而大宗期货市场ISO控制着输电网络和电力调度,PX向ISO制定并提交了一份交易计划,这是ISO协调电网运营的基础。
 
  Compared with the UK,the us electricity marketization is more advanced and thorough,taking another path.However,due to the vast territory of the United States,which has the largest electric power system in the world,and the electric power regulation is usually bounded by the state,the electric power marketization in the United States is also relatively complicated with different forms.Overall,there are roughly the following characteristics.
 
  The organization structure and production operation of the electric power industry in the United States are changing constantly with the melting of electricity marketization.In a large combined power grid,there are usually several independent power generation enterprises and several or dozens of independent power grid operation enterprises,which have roughly the same joint operation rules.Under the market-oriented model,the operation of the grid is controlled and dispatched by independent system operators,while the power exchange is responsible for making trading plans.
 
  From the general direction,the electric power marketization mode in the United States is marketization in the field of power generation and electricity sales,and public utility in the field of power transmission.That is to say,power generation enterprises compete freely in the power market,and the power transmission network is monopolized by numerous power grid operators.Power grid operators usually do not own power generation capacity,but only provide non-discriminatory transmission services to power producers and power distributors,and the transmission price is determined by the law of the government.Wholesale users of electricity can purchase electricity directly from power producers through the grid.Therefore,the participants in the electricity market are mainly power producers,transmission providers,system operators and consumers.
 
  The competition of electric power marketization model in the United States appears to be sufficient,and the trading model is also complex.Competition is not only in the procurement of real-time energy markets,in which power producers compete to provide power to large consumers and power distributors,but also in the procurement of ancillary services markets and even in the sale and auction of access rights to transmission channels.PX,the power trading center,is an important link in the operation of the market.It operates daily auctions,daily markets and bulk futures markets every hour of the next day.Based on the contracts determined by the three markets,it makes trade plans to the system operator ISO,which serves as the basis for ISO to coordinate the operation of the grid.ISO,the operator of the system,based on the transaction plan provided by PX,makes the operation plan of the system,and purchases the balanced service in the auction one day and one hour in advance in the auxiliary service market to ensure the implementation of the operation plan.Also at the same time,the system operator(ISO market participants use to submit the"adjust"bidding,for one day in advance and congestion management between area,an hour earlier and make real-time area support management,if there will be a regional transmission capacity restriction,the ISO will available transmission capacity in accordance with the"regulation"is allocated in the bidding,if congestion occurs in the area,the ISO will by means of economic compensation,namely to have entered a sort of power suppliers payment of compensation to make it run out,and valuable to other higher prices elsewhere,in a sort of power suppliers,make its start and change the operation plan,So as to solve the problem of transmission congestion.In addition,ISO manages the real time energy market and USES price signals to balance supply and demand.
 
  In keeping with this more robust competition,the prices of different segments of American electricity products are mostly set through competition.In the power generation sector,the price of electricity sold by power producers is usually determined by the purchase price of electricity in the real-time energy market and supplementary services market,the contract price with wholesalers and large users,transmission costs and transmission congestion prices,etc.Transmission prices are strictly controlled by the government,and the corresponding charging standards are determined by relevant laws.The price of electricity sold to the end user fluctuates with the price of electricity sold by the generator,transmission congestion and supply cost.
 
  The process of electricity marketization in the United States is associated with the process of government deregulation.The regulation of the electric power industry in the United States is mostly carried out on a state basis.Due to the vast territory of the United States,at the federal government level,only FERC,the federal energy regulatory commission of the United States,regulates the electric power industry on behalf of the United States government,mainly through formulating relevant policies,laws and regulations to ensure the implementation of competition.Specific regulation of the electric power industry varies from state to state in terms of the scope,procedure and mode of regulation.But generally speaking,in the field of power generation,apart from environmental regulation,there are almost no barriers to the entry of the power industry;In the field of transmission,there are still strict government regulations.Government laws strictly stipulate the standard of transmission fee collection and the obligation to provide transmission services to power producers and wholesalers without discrimination.In the distribution business,the government grants some power companies a monopoly in a certain region by issuing business licenses.In the United States,utilities are prohibited from raising electricity prices at will.
 
  The electric power marketization practice in the United States has played a certain role in promoting the development of the American electric power industry.Through electric power market,electric power industry,especially in power generation industry obtained the sufficient and effective competition,the market mechanism played an important role in the allocation of power resources,effectively improve the operation efficiency of the electric power industry,electric terminal sales prices for years remain at a low level in some respects,the electric power enterprise's service quality has been improved.It should be said that the electricity marketization model in the United States is as typical as the British model,which brings people many bold and creative inspirations.
 
  The prominent problem of the American electricity marketization model is that the excessive ties and deregulation of the market go beyond the procedures allowed by the particularity of the electric power industry.Specific performance in the following aspects.
 
  The sufficient and unique market competition mode has delayed the change of market price signal.In addition,the increasingly strict environmental protection regulation and the lack of strong planning guidance and market regulation have resulted in the shortage of spare capacity in the power generation market.
 
  In order to relax the regulation on the field of power generation and pay attention to the production of electricity,the power transmission and demand are ignored.The regulation design of power grid monopoly fails to play an effective incentive effect on the investment of power grid,which not only restricts the power supply,but also causes the safety problem of power grid.Under the strict supervision of the government,the power supply has a low price,and cannot be easily raise prices,transmission of the profit margin is very limited,making electric power company is little effort to invest in renovation of the power,and in favor of the transmission and system reliability of the power grid construction become weak links of power investment,the transmission capacity is insufficient,system aging,easy to cause electrical safety problems,in this case,the government would protect the interests of the consumer to price limits,has become a business investment,damage the interests of consumers.
 
  The highly decentralized grid management and operation system,diversified market pattern and serious technical barriers have posed unprecedented challenges to the safe and stable operation of the grid.In the process of electricity marketization in the United States,there has been no large-scale reorganization of power enterprises,so its electricity marketization lacks adequate institutional guarantee.This has become prominent in the grid sector.From the technical and economic characteristics of the power industry,in order to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the power grid,a highly centralized management system and uniform operation rules are required.However,in the United States,there are nearly 200 power grid enterprises scattered in each major power grid.As different interest subjects,each power company has great differences in scheduling procedures,line design standards and grid operation rules,and so on.They act in their own ways and have huge coordination costs.FERC has long known this.In 2001 FERC's chairman set a target for the United States government to merge three to five of 195 independent grid companies in the next eight years,with policy incentives to encourage mergers and acquisitions.However,before this plan was put into practice,there was the great power failure in the eastern United States in 2003,which further highlighted the disadvantages of electricity marketization in the United States.

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标题: Essay代写范文|美国电力市场化       地址:http://www.12y.org/a/news/fanwencankao/451.html

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