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Essay代写范文|表达自由

来源:网络整理    作者:留学生活网    发布时间:2019-06-19 14:20    阅读: 次    文章分类:范文参考

文章关键词:Essay代写范文


文章导读:本文是一篇Essay代写范文,题目为:The freedom of expression,本文主要讨论了表达自由。表达自由是人们内在精神活动通过一定方式外在化的各种表现形式,是公民参与国家政治权利的重要...
  本文是一篇Essay代写范文,题目为:The freedom of expression,本文主要讨论了表达自由。表达自由是人们内在精神活动通过一定方式外在化的各种表现形式,是公民参与国家政治权利的重要表现形式。表达自由主要包括言论、出版、集会、结社、游行和示威自由等。人们有参与政治意思决定的权利,表达自由行使个人的意愿,在公意形成的过程中得到充分的表达,是实施民主政治的重要基本人权。

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  Essay代写范文|表达自由
 
  The amendment to the constitution of the United States:"congress shall make no law respecting:the establishment of religion or the prohibition of freedom of belief;Depriving people of freedom of speech or of the press;Depriving people of the right to assemble peacefully and to petition the government."Countries that explicitly use the term"freedom of expression"in their constitution take Japan as an example.Article 21 of the Japanese constitution stipulates that"freedom of assembly,association,speech,publication and all other manifestations shall be guaranteed."The article defines freedom of assembly and association and freedom of speech and publication as"freedom of expression".Such a mode of provision is rare in contemporary constitutions.In the constitutions and bills of rights of other countries and regions,the phrase"freedom of expression"is often used.Like"freedom of expression","freedom of expression"has its broad and narrow definitions.In fact,freedom of expression means freedom of expression."Freedom of expression"appeared earlier in the French declaration of human rights and citizenship.Article 10 of the declaration states:"no one shall be subject to interference with his opinion,or even his religious opinion,so long as it does not disturb the public process prescribed by law."Article 11 states:"the free expression of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious human rights;every citizen,therefore,is free to speak,write,and publish,but shall be liable for the abuse of this freedom,if the law so requires."In modern times,the constitutions of most countries provide for freedom of expression.According to the statistics of Dutch jurist marsven et al.,among the written constitutions of 142 countries,124 constitutions stipulate freedom of expression,accounting for 87.3%.Without provisions,there were 18 constitutions,or 12.7 per cent.Over the past few years,countries where the constitution does not provide for freedom of expression have also changed.The freedom to express one's opinion is now recognized in almost every constitution in the world.
       美国宪法修正案:“国会不应制定有关以下方面的法律:建立宗教或禁止信仰自由;剥夺人民言论或新闻自由;剥夺人民和平集会和向政府请愿的权利。”明确使用“自由”一词的国家以日本为例,《日本宪法》第二十一条规定:“应当保障集会、结社、言论、出版等各种表现形式的自由。”该条将集会、结社、言论、出版的自由界定为“言论自由”,这是对日本宪法的一种修改。在当代宪法中,规定是罕见的,在其他国家和地区的宪法和权利法案中,经常使用“言论自由”一词,像“言论自由”一样,“言论自由”有其宽泛和狭隘的定义,事实上,言论自由就是言论自由,“言论自由”出现了。在法国《人权与公民权宣言》之前,该宣言第10条规定:“任何人不得干涉其意见,甚至其宗教意见,只要它不干扰法律规定的公共进程。”第11条规定:“思想和意见的自由表达是最宝贵的之一。人权;因此,每个公民都有言论、写作和出版的自由,但如果法律有此要求,每个公民都应对滥用这种自由承担责任。“在现代,大多数国家的宪法都规定了言论自由。根据荷兰法学家Marsven等人的统计,142个国家的成文宪法中,有124个国家的宪法规定了言论自由。宪法规定了言论自由,占87.3%。没有规定,有18部宪法,占12.7%。在过去几年里,没有规定言论自由的国家也发生了变化。现在世界上几乎每部宪法都承认表达意见的自由。
 
  Justice black once eloquently stated the preeminent value of freedom of expression guaranteed by the first amendment:"the people in this country must have pure freedom to speak and write in public affairs...The reliable exercise of this right cannot depend on the poor or good judgment of the United States government agencies.Maybe that's wrong.Perhaps it is wrong to give the first amendment language its literal and unambiguous meaning...But in my own view,I think our great wealth is to have people like Dr.Einstein remind us over and over again that the safety and well-being of the union lies in the preservation of inviolable freedom of speech,of the press,of assembly."Freedom of expression has been a lifelong pursuit of mankind.Freedom of expression is the basis of human survival and development,and to a large extent,the dissemination and exchange of freedom of expression plays a crucial role in the transformation of human social political system,the evolution of economic organization,and the development of science and technology.Therefore,the value of freedom of expression is indelible.
       布莱克大法官曾经雄辩地阐述了《第一修正案》所保障的言论自由的卓越价值:“这个国家的人民必须有在公共事务中发言和写作的纯粹自由……可靠行使这项权利不能依赖于美国政府机构的糟糕或良好判断。也许这是错误的。根据也许给第一修正案的语言一个直白而明确的含义是错误的……但在我自己看来,我认为我们的巨大财富是让像爱因斯坦博士这样的人反复提醒我们,工会的安全和福祉在于维护不可侵犯的言论自由、新闻自由和集会自由。“言论自由表达自由是人类一生的追求,表达自由是人类生存和发展的基础,在很大程度上,表达自由的传播和交流对人类社会政治制度的转型、经济组织的演变、科学技术的发展都起着至关重要的作用。因此,言论自由的价值是不可磨灭的。
 
  Each person has the right to form his own views and beliefs in the course of the development of his personality,and he has the right to express these views and beliefs,otherwise their existence will be meaningless.The way of people's self-development and improvement is related to education level,personal practice,social system and other elements,but among these elements,freedom of expression is of great value to the self-development and improvement of individuals and the maintenance of individual dignity.Because expression is an integral part of thought development,spiritual development and self-affirmation.Freedom of expression gives man dignity as a human being and is a sign that a free man is regarded as having normal reason.Freedom of expression enables people to express their unique imagination and understanding of the outside world through language or sexual expression,so as to realize and express themselves.
       每个人都有权在人格发展过程中形成自己的观点和信仰,并有权表达这些观点和信仰,否则这些观点和信仰的存在将毫无意义。人们自我发展和提高的方式与教育水平、个人实践、社会制度等因素有关,b但是,在这些因素中,表达自由对于个体的自我发展和完善以及个体尊严的维护具有重要的价值,因为表达是思想发展、精神发展和自我肯定的组成部分,表达自由赋予人作为人的尊严,是自由的标志。人被认为是有正常理性的,表达的自由使人们能够通过语言或性表达来表达自己独特的想象和对外界世界的理解,从而实现和表达自己。
 
  Freedom of expression enables one to advance knowledge and acquire truth."The state must therefore recognize that the individual enjoys this freedom only because it gives the people an opportunity to exchange knowledge and ideas,and promotes the intellectual and moral development of the people."Truth is the rule hidden behind things.The cognition process of human beings to things is a process from relative truth to absolute truth.By constantly denying relative truth,human beings gradually approach to"absolute truth".People have the right to know everything freely and express their cognition of everything freely.The truth is to fight against falsehood in this process and finally be recognized by people.To find the exact truth,we should collect all kinds of information and opinions from all sides,especially the opposing opinions.At the same time,we should put our own judgment under the challenge of the public and constantly temper and revise it.Only in this way can we have more and more truth.
 
  Although freedom of expression is one of the important values of a society,no right in a society ruled by law is absolutely unlimited.The relative nature and legal provisions of freedom of expression determine that freedom of expression must be limited to some extent.In social life,as an offensive right,the exercise of freedom of expression will inevitably conflict with other interests and rights.But no right or freedom is absolute.Similarly,freedom of expression is also relative and has internal restrictions,that is,"inviolable human rights shall also include restrictions on inviolable human rights of others,and failure to recognize violations of others'human rights as the exercise of human rights".As the black law dictionary points out,"the freedom of speech protected by the constitution is not absolute at all times and under all circumstances.The types of speech are clearly defined and properly defined.The prohibition and punishment of speech such as obscenity,obscenity,blasphemy,defamation,insult and provocation would not raise constitutional questions."But because of the freedom of expression in the expression of content and form have diversity and complexity,so the freedom of expression and other interests and rights conflict also has diversity and complexity,such a kind of words doesn't address how to reasonable restrictions on freedom of expression,so as to determine the expression of boundary of the major problem of the constitution.As one scholar concluded from his interpretation of the federalist papers,"it is impossible to draw any stable and firm line.The solution must be found.The key is not the line,but the way to draw the line."Therefore,it is necessary to follow certain principles to protect and limit freedom of expression.
 
  According to the principle of first application of freedom of expression,freedom of expression is superior to any other freedom because it occupies a prominent place in the system of basic human rights.Compared with other rights such as economic freedom,freedom of expression should have a"superior position",that is,it should be regarded as a legal value with priority.In case of conflict between the two rights,other freedoms should be compromised.The principle of first application of freedom of expression has been recognized in the theory and practice of the constitutions of all countries.
 
  The principle of individual interest measurement,that is,the court compares the benefit of freedom of speech to the benefit of individuals and society with the social benefit obtained by restricting freedom.In the case of conflicting interests and values,the exercise of the right to freedom of expression and the regulation of freedom need to be compared and measured for various interests and values.
 
  Prohibition of prior suppression principle,that is,public power does not allow prior intervention or suppression of freedom of speech.Historical experience shows that public power intervening in advance to suppress freedom of expression will inevitably fundamentally damage freedom of expression.
 
  The principle of definiteness requires that when a law is enacted to restrict freedom of expression,the purpose,procedure,scope and standard of legal regulation must be clear.As mentioned above,freedom of expression plays a prominent and important role in the system of basic human rights and has a special importance.The principle of clarity is indispensable.If the legal regulation of freedom of expression is vague or too broad,it will lead to misunderstanding and even more chaos in the society.
 
  The principle of minimum restriction,according to this principle,when a law restricting freedom of expression is applied,the means of minimum restriction required by the purpose of prohibition shall be selected;the legislative regulation of freedom of expression shall not exceed the necessary minimum.The regulation of freedom of expression should minimize the factors that restrict or hinder the full realization of freedom of expression.
 
  Understanding and now dangerous principle,this principle was proposed by the United States Supreme Court justice holmes,and strongly advocated by justice brandeis.Holmes,in shenk v.United States,noted that in any case,the use of language in a state of known danger that would cause the harm to which congress has the power to prevent would depend on the nature of the danger.If there is a clear and present danger,such speech should be prohibited.Holmes's argument became an important principle of us case law.
 
  In short,freedom of expression,as a basic right of citizens,has indelible value in social development and progress."It has a role different from other fundamental rights,and its value is increasingly superior".In the real society,freedom of expression must follow certain principles to guarantee and limit freedom of expression.

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