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Essay代写范文|雇佣关系

来源:网络整理    作者:留学生活网    发布时间:2019-05-14 14:23    阅读: 次    文章分类:范文参考

文章关键词:Essay代写范文


文章导读:良好的雇佣关系不仅有利于生产的有序发展,而且有利于经济的长期稳定。不同的国家由于其不同的历史背景、经济模式和政府类型,逐渐形成了不同的雇佣关系体系。...
  本文是一篇Essay代写范文,这篇范文讨论了雇佣关系。良好的雇佣关系不仅有利于生产的有序发展,而且有利于经济的长期稳定。不同的国家由于其不同的历史背景、经济模式和政府类型,逐渐形成了不同的雇佣关系体系。德国和中国都依赖于单边监管和不同形式的社团主义,但德国的法定法规比中国的要发达。

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Essay代写范文|雇佣关系
Essay代写范文|雇佣关系
  
  Good employment relations not only help the orderly development of production,but also conducive to the long-term economic stability.Different countries gradually develop different systems of employment relations due to their various historical backgrounds,economic models,and types of government.Both Germany and China rely on unilateral regulation and different forms of corporatism,but the German statutory regulations are more developed than that of China.
       良好的雇佣关系关系不仅有利于生产的有序发展,而且有利于经济的长期稳定。不同国家由于历史背景、经济模式和政府类型的不同,逐步发展出不同的就业关系体系。德中两国都依赖于单边调控。和不同形式的社团主义,但德国的法规比中国更为发达。
 
  At the national level,Germany engages in social corporatist mechanisms,and these are established on the basis of its coordinated market economy and democratic governance environment.As the strongest economy in Europe and the world’s third largest economy,most economic activities are carried out in coordinated fashion among multiple political and social institutions.As a result,the tripartite system supports the collaborative and compromise-based settlement of a wide range of macro policy issues.Germany is following the path of encouraging a large amount of production to improve the national employment rate,and stimulates consumption in order to reach a higher level of economic growth.This kind of regulation mode contributes to the independence of its employment relations but also brings challenges,such as the growing costs of maintaining the balance between employers and employees while emphasizing social benefits(Turner,Wever,&Fichter,2001).So far,Germany’s corporatism has been fairly successful,particularly compared to mass strikes in other European countries and regulatory failures in America,but criticism and doubts have started to appear.In stark contrast to Germany,China insists a monopolistic and pro-management system of authoritarian corporatism due to its dictatorial leadership and the nature of the party-state.The communist party monopolizes the representation of social groups and this leads to the absence of freedom of associations;China is particularly sensitive to independent labor unions given the history of Solidarity in Poland.Although China conducted a wide range of economic reforms and transformed from a state-planned economy to a market driven economy,the government still dominates almost every part of its major economic actives.Under these conditions,China has created the“market economy with socialist characteristics”which makes China the world’s biggest manufacturer(Belzer,Wei,&Nan,2008).A decidedly corporatist form of worker relations has formed in China,and the society and economy are organized into major interest groups under the government’s coordination.Macroeconomic policy directions are a key factor to determine a given country’s employment relations.The two opposite economic models have made China and Germany go in totally different directions.Germany is struggling with improving the balance between parties while China cares much more about the industrial development than the employees themselves.
       在国家层面上,德国实行社会社团主义机制,这些机制是在其协调的市场经济和民主治理环境的基础上建立起来的,作为欧洲最强大的经济体和世界第三大经济体,大多数经济活动都是在多种政治和经济活动之间协调进行的。社会制度。因此,三方体制支持以协作和妥协为基础解决广泛的宏观政策问题。德国正在走鼓励大量生产的道路,以提高国家就业率,刺激消费,以达到更高的经济增长水平。这是一个很好的解决方案。这种监管模式不仅有助于促进其雇佣关系的独立性,而且也带来了挑战,如在强调社会效益的同时,保持雇主和雇员之间平衡的成本不断增加(Turner、Wever和Fichter,2001年),到目前为止,德国的公司主义已经相当成功,特别是与大众公司相比。其他欧洲国家的三轮车和美国的监管失败,但批评和怀疑已经开始出现。与德国形成鲜明对比的是,中国坚持独裁主义和专制主义的专制主义管理体制,因为其独裁领导和党的性质。共产党垄断了代表权。在社会团体中,这导致了结社自由的缺失;鉴于波兰的团结历史,中国对独立工会特别敏感。尽管中国进行了广泛的经济改革,并从国家计划经济转型为市场驱动经济,但政府几乎始终主导着社会。是中国主要经济活动的一部分,在这种条件下,中国创造了“社会主义特色的市场经济”,使中国成为世界上最大的生产国(Belzer、Wei、Nan,2008),在中国形成了一种明确的社团主义的劳动关系形式,社会经济组织成了世界上最大的利益集团。r政府的协调。宏观经济政策方向是决定一个国家就业关系的关键因素。两种相反的经济模式使中国和德国走上了完全不同的方向。德国正在努力改善各方之间的平衡,而中国更关心的是工业发展。比员工自身发展。
 
  From the perspective of statutory regulations,China is much looser than Germany.Germany has a high degree of legalization of working environments and a more comprehensive legal system to ensure the fairness and rationality of employment and working conditions.The government is neutral in all labor relations and does not intervene directly.However,the government still intervenes regularly by systematically paying attention to the supervision of occupational safety,working conditions,and the performance and enforcement of collective agreements.The German government’s macro-control of basic employee relations,through strong labor legislation and active labor courts,ensures the basic balance between trade unions and employers'organizations,and ensures the stability and fairness of norms and effectiveness of mutually productive collective bargaining between the two parties.Under this framework,German has strong employer associations and they are legally protected.The German trade unions are independent social organizations with no political attributes that the workers voluntarily form.The status and role of trade unions are fully protected by law.Trade unions and political parties are not allowed to have any dependencies.The trade unions play the role of legal supervisor and they actively participate in legislation formation and social system construction,safeguard the German social security system,maintain the collective bargaining model of the German labor market,and effectively protect the workers'actual interests.Unlike Germany,the Chinese government is not highly involved in employment relations,except in the most extreme circumstances.The Chinese unions do not have the legal right of collective bargaining.There are three forms of collective bargaining in China:collective consultation by formality,collective bargaining by riots,and party-state led collective bargaining.In the New Labor Contract Law 2008,employees were encouraged to get more involved by unionization and collective bargaining in order to improve the level of employment environment(Choi,2008).However,considering the employment market currently,it still has a relatively weak statutory regulation than Germany,and even laws on the books are rarely enforced.
 
  Another aspect is the unilateral regulation.In Germany,the co-determination system is governed by the Works Constitution Act.The terms of the labor contract must be subject to the provisions of mandatory law or a collective contract.However,the establishment of labor relations and structure and procedure of relationships must be mutually agreed upon by both sides of the employment relationship.Mandatory legal provisions are numerous and thus protect employees.This framework looks beneficial to the employees;however,in practice,they still play the weaker roles.With the shifting of regulatory activities to the factory level,the regulatory power of work associations have been reduced,accompanied with a falling membership.At the same time,under the condition of growing global competition and technological development,the traditional collective bargaining agreements and work councils in Germany are less efficient and flexible than decentralized or individual regulation(Oberfchtner&Schnabel,2017).While in China,the problem is more complicated.The large number of informal private-sector firms is the key challenge.The legal and political institutions see companies under the control of the government,but a lot of companies manage to escape from the normal enforcement of laws.Under this condition,there is no mechanism that ensures the employer follows the law and individuals have to file to court.But the process is long and expensive,so the employees are living in unbalanced terms(Belzer,Wei,&Nan,2008).The current legal regulations are not strong enough to ensure the equality and efficiency in China’s employment relations.Market interests generally trump legal obligations.When the rules are unilaterally set by employers and power imbalances exist,employment conflicts and labor struggles become frequent.The German labor relations’adjustment model mainly includes labor courts.Emphasis on mediation in labor disputes,mediation is a necessary procedure for the establishment of disputes over cases by the primary labor courts.In contrast,China has more labor arbitration and mandatory arbitrations.
 
  In summary,China has put strict control of the economic activities under its condition of authoritarian corporatism,while Germany conducts social corporatist mechanisms.Both countries depend on unilateral regulation in adjusting industrial relations,but it is more of a co-determination in Germany,which means work council and worker representatives on board.As for statutory regulation,the trade unions play very important role in Germany’s labor market,but in China,most employees are staying in a disadvantageous legal position.
 
  Works Cited
 
  Choi,Y.(2008).Aligning labour disputes with institutional,cultural and rational
 
  approach:evidence from East Asian-invested enterprises in China.International Journal of Human Resource Management,19(10).
 
  Michael H.Belzer,Pan Shih Wie,&Yu Nan.(2008).Industrial relations experiments
 
  in China:Balancing equity and efficiency the Chinese way.Alfred P.Sloan Foundation Industry Studies Meeting,May 2.
 
  Michael Oberfchtner,Claus Schnabel.(2017).The German Model of Industrial
 
  Relations:(Where)Does It Still Exist?IZA institutes for labor economics,October.
 
  Turner,L.,Wever,K.S.&Fichter,M.(2001).Perils of the high and low roads:
 
  Employment relations in the United States and Germany.Kalamazoo,MI:W.E.Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

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